Listening skills can be separated into two categories, bottom-up and top-down listening. Both are essential for effective listening comprehension. Bottom-up listening is the process of converting sounds into meaning. Top-Down listening is the process of using background information, such as knowledge about the topic or visual clues, to be able to comprehend spoken language. The human brain is simply not fast enough to be able to process everything bottom-up. Both are necessary for listening comprehension.
Speaking fluency is the ability to communicate meaning effectively, without thinking about pronunciation, grammar or vocabulary.
Reading, like listening can be separated into bottom-up and top-down listening. Bottom-up reading is the process of converting information received by the eye into meaning. Top-down reading is the process of using background information, such as your knowledge about the topic, to be able to read quickly and efficiently. Both are necessary for effective reading.
Writing skills can be separated into content and form. Content is the information you choose to use to make your point. Form is the vocabulary, grammar and text organisation you use to deliver the content. For communication, content is the most important, but without correct form the meaning is lost.
英語が話せたらいいなぁ。留学ってどうすればできるんだろう。でも実際英語はどうやって勉強すればいいんだろう。こんなことを思ったことはありませんか？この、The ALL ROOMsはそんな願いを、お金をかけずに楽しみながら、自然な形で叶えてくれる不思議な空間です。興味を持ったらいつでも気軽に来てみてください。
To focus on form in listening, the focus is on bottom-up listening skills. In other words, practicing distinguishing individual words or phrases in speech.
Form focus in speaking involves paying attention to pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and appropriacy. Appropriacy is selecting the correct language for the correct social situation, for example speaking with your boss and your friend requires different forms of expression. We use the term form for all of these.
Bottom-up reading skills are the focus for form focus in reading. This involves mostly word recognition, but also important are grammar and text organisation.
As mentioned above, form in writing involves vocabulary, grammar and text organisation.
大学生になったら英語が話せるようになりたい。日本に居ながら英語が話せるようになりたい。外国人と友達になりたい。本格的に英語を勉強したい。こんなことを思っているあなたは、ぜひThe ALL ROOMsへ。The ALL ROOMsは、そんなあなたを応援する、留学生・日本人学生・教員の運営する「不思議な空間」です。一歩踏み入れたらそこは英語の世界。公用語は英語オンリー！学部も学年も国籍も関係ない、秋田大学でしか味わえない、あなたも「学内留学」してみませんか？
The ALL Rooms aim to provide everything you need to take control of your language learning, the learning materials, guidance in planning and evaluating your learning and opportunities to use the language. We do our best, but, everyone has different needs and, while we want to provide for them all, if we donʼt know what they are we canʼt provide for them. So, please let us know if there is anything we can to better serve your needs.